Passports will be required from EU citizens to enter the UK from October 2021.
The government confirmed European Union, European Economic Area and Swiss identity cards will no longer be accepted as a valid travel document from next autumn, after the end of the transition period.
It said they were among the “least secure” documents seen at borders and insisting on passports “will strengthen our security as the UK takes back control of its borders at the end of the transition period.”
However, this will not include Irish and Gibraltarian citizens.
The updated Border Operating Model published by the Cabinet Office on Thursday will also affect British truckers.
After the transition period ends on December 31, they will need an access permit to drive into Kent on the way to Dover.
The government said the service will be “easy-to-use”.